Modeling / TIMES modelling

The HU-TIMES model is a TIMES model further developed by REKK for the entire Hungarian energy sector. In this, the technological and cost-side characteristics of the domestic electricity and district heating facilities, as well as the technological and demand-side characteristics in the examined end-user sectors appear. With the help of the model, we examine the additional costs of achieving the individual energy policy goals at the lowest cost principle compared to the reference case. In order to develop the HU-TIMES model as accurately and up-to-date as possible, we started from the information received from the individual industry actors, as well as from the data found in the domestic and international literature. This facilitated application of the most accurate values possible to both supply-side and demand-side characteristics. The HU-TIMES model is suitable for analyzing the energy sector from the side of both the production (technological) and costs (economic). In addition, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the energy sector can be extracted as a result and used as a constraint for the operation of the model. In the HU-TIMES model, the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) GHGs were studied. For each energy source, the emission values for each gas have been determined as one of the characteristics of the energy source. This allows to analyze GHG emissions and their changes, and thus the costs of abatement, at the sectoral or even technological level.


  • Costs of fuels and CO2 emission factors
  • Technology cost
  • Macroeconomic indicators (e.g. population, GDP)


  • Spatial granularity: Country level
  • Spatial coverage: Hungary
  • Temporal granularity: 96 reference timeslice, annual timestep, long time horizon


  • Partial system social cost minimisation


  • Energy consumption
  • Technology use
  • Total system cost
  • GHG emission
  • Abatement costs


  • Cost calculation
  • Assessment of regulatory policy on Hungarian energy market
  • Analysis of the interdependencies among the different energy sectors